Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or 
          prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, 
          or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to 
          petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 

          AMENDMENT II 

          A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, 
          the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. 

          AMENDMENT III 

          No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the 
          consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be 
          prescribed by law. 

          AMENDMENT IV 

          The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and 
          effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, 
          and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath 
          or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and 
          the persons or things to be seized. 

          AMENDMENT V 

          No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous 
          crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in 
          cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual 
          service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject 
          for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall 
          be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be 
          deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall 
          private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

          AMENDMENT VI 

          In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy 
          and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the 
          crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously 
          ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the 
          accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have 
          compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the 
          Assistance of Counsel for his defence. 

          AMENDMENT VII 

          In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
          twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact 
          tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United 
          States, than according to the rules of the common law. 


          Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor 
          cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

          AMENDMENT IX 

          The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be 
          construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

          AMENDMENT X 

          The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor 
          prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to 
          the people. 

          The first ten amendments, which make up the so-called Bill of Rights, 
          were designed to calm the fears of the mild opponents of the 
          Constitution in its original form. The amendments were proposed to 
          the state legislatures by the first Congress that assembled under the 
          Constitution in 1789 and were ratified in 1791. Some of the framers 
          had argued that the Bill of Rights was not necessary since the 
          national government did not in any case have the power to do what 
          was expressly forbidden in the proposed amendments. 

          AMENDMENT XIV 

          Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and 
          subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of 
          the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law 
          which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United 
          States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, 
          without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction 
          the equal protection of the laws. 

          Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States 
          according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of 
          persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to 
          vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice 
          President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the 
          Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the 
          Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, 
          being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any 
          way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the 
          basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which 
          the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male 
          citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. 

          Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, 
          or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or 
          military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having 
          previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the 
          United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive 
          or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United 
          States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or 
          given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote 
          of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. 

          Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized 
          by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for 
          services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. 
          But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt 
          or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United 
          States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such 
          debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. 

          Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate 
          legislation, the provisions of this article.